Motor Skills

Amanda June Lewis

Learning and Behavior, PSY 383

Professor Heather Lippard

October 27, 2013

  Motor Skills

Discuss your outcome with this activity. What did you learn about motor learning?

The outcome with this activity is to control and learn movements as my subject is a trainer. Firstly, he states; “I learned regarding motor skills when learning for my Master’s Degree. The activity fascinated me, because I am trainer for the NCAA Division. I competitively learn innovative skills on a regular basis.” He indicated that he discover himself inquiring questions such as, “How can I most expertly facilitate the gymnasts study for these tricks; is there a superior way to provide them feedback; How do I manage practice?” He informs me, “The things I learned from motor learning classes facilitate me to turn out to be a superior teacher and trainer.”

Based on your readings, identify which theory of motor-skill learning best fits this activity. Why do you consider it to be the best fit?

Schmidt’s theory is best fit for this activity because it describes how motor skills are learned. The detection schema is structured on the grounds of information about the relationship among the environmental outcomes, initial conditions, and the sensory outcomes. Prior to a movement take position and an individual can employ a learned detection schema to forecast the sensory outcomes that will arise if the right movement outcome takes position. 

Apply what you have learned during this activity to a real-life learning experience, either for yourself, or for someone you are teaching.

Working efficiently with others on projects, inquire high-quality questions, finding appropriate information and recognizing how to employ it are skills that will provide advantage in a person’s personal life. This will give the opportunity to perform these skills in real life. “As a professional movement teacher, involve in teaching other persons motor skills of various sort. This activity will facilitate you to learn how motor learning can facilitate a person to become an efficient trainer of motor skills.” Research conclusion will facilitate people to study how they can assist customers to learn motor skills more rapidly and appreciate the changes in performance and management that takes place as the customers gets superior customer service.


Howard Hughes Medical Institute 2008 Holiday Lectures on Science: “Mirror-Tracing Activity” Retrieved by

J Rucci, 2011: “Theories of Motor Skill Acquisition” February 23, 2011, Retrieved by


Collapse Mark as Unread RE: Discussion 4 Faculty Lippard Email this Author 10/28/2013 2:57:44 PM
Thanks June for getting this in! Can you talk about how your experience was with completing the star tracing activity? Also, can you talk about why Schmidt’s theory relates to the star tracing activity? How does it fit the best of the three theories? Finally, what type of motor skill have you learned or seen someone else learn that you can relate to this activity of the star tracing?

Looking forward to reading more!



Collapse Mark as Unread RE: Discussion 4 Vincent Davis Email this Author 10/29/2013 10:58:19 PM
Amanda, I feel that I am a slow learner yet when I do eventually learn a task and integrate it into my daily behavior, I quickly master it and I feel that this was the case with this star tracing activity.  This is why I felt that Adam’s Two-Stage Theory closely mirrors the processes that we needed to go through in order to become better at the skill.  “Adams proposed that an important part of the learning of such a skill is the development of an appropriate perceptual trace” (Mazur, 2006).  My perceptual trace is strengthened through constant and continuous completion of said task, yet it takes me a bit longer at times.  Amanda, can you think of a time where you learned a task at a much slower pace than your friends or fellow classmates and how did that make you feel?


Mazur, J. E.  (2006).  Learning and Behavior 6
th Edition.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, Inc.


Collapse Mark as Unread RE: Discussion 4 Alexandra Cooley Email this Author 10/29/2013 11:10:47 PM

I agree that Schmidt’s theory fits best with this motor skill test. What about it connected your thoughts with Schmidt’s theory and the test?


Collapse Mark as Unread RE: Discussion 4 Amber Chrobak Email this Author 10/29/2013 11:48:35 PM


Good job with your post. However, I would have to disagree with your choice of which theory of motor-skill learning best fits this activity. It is my personal opinion that based on the readings for this module the theory of motor-skill learning that best fits this activity would be Jack A. Adams’s two-stage theory. In this theory according to Adams when someone learns a new motor skill the perceptual trace or reference input is not yet there (Mazur, 2006). For instance, in this activity, which is similar to the example of the 3-inch line drawling in the book, in the beginning of the activity one knows that they must trace the star but does not know what it feels like to trace it. In Adams’s theory he believed that the perceptual trace is “key” in the learning of a new skill such as this. According to Mazur (2006) the perceptual trace is supposedly a result of the memory of the sensations provided by sensory neurons of muscles within the arm and hand when the appropriate length or in this case appropriate length of each line needed to form the star has been drawn.

  The second stage of Adams’s two- stage theory is the motor stage in which a person relies on perceptual trace for accuracy of movement without having outside knowledge of results (KC) which originally would have come from the first stage of Adams’s theory: verbal- motor stage. In this stage for someone to improve they rely on feedback from, usually a verbal form but in this case it would have been from being able to see ones errors after each trial. It is through this constant feedback one learns KC (Mazur, 2006).

Schmidt proposed, to deal with more flexible motor skills, like the motor skills needed to play tennis that requires different movements all the time, which people can acquire general rules (which he called schemas) as they practice (Mazur, 2006). This is not the case with this activity; it is simply the same movements each time you do it. Playing tennis, which is one of the examples given by the book, requires the player to form perceptual schemas because they learn how hard to hit the ball for certain movements and distances according to Schmidt.

Does my explanation why I do not believe the theory you chose fits this activity? What are your thoughts? Why do you believe the theory you chose fits better than the one I chose?


Mazur, J. E. (2006). Learning and behavior. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Retrieved from

Thanks, Amber

Bekkering, H., Wohlschlager, A., & Gattis, M. (2000). Imitation of gestures in children is goal-directed. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A, 53(1), 153–164. doi:10.1080/027249800390718. (EBSCO AN: 4772409) 

These are the questions asked and must be in by 11:00 CST. I am just throwing a figure out there for pay. Time is of the essences on this one!

Thanks! Joyfull1